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Verb Meaning Present Past Future CAN Реальная…







Реальная воз­можность совершения действия;


1 can/can’t swim.

1 could/ couldn t coπιe yester­day.

I wfll∕wront be able to do it tomorrow.

Неформаль­ное разреше­ние

Can/Could I use your pencil?

My parents said I could watch TV,

Can/Could I go out tomor­row?


You can t go out!

Вежливая просьба

Could you tell me the way to Trafalgar Square, please?

Сомнение, недоверие

It can t be true.

Can he have said it?


Формальное разрешение

May 1 come in? — Yes, you may.

He asked if he might come in.

We will be al­lowed to do it tomorrow.

Предположе­ние с невысо­кой сте­пенью уве­ренности

He may/ might be having din­ner now.

He may/ might not have come yet.

He may/ might come later.

Продолжение Mate.







Приказ, осоз­нанная необ­


1 must learn well.

You must go out.

I had to go to school yesterday.

1 will have to learn this rule.


You mustn t smoke.

Предположе­ние с высо­кой сте­пенью уве­ренности

He must be right.

He must have misun­derstood me.

They must be Ieanng to­morrow.



Ная необхо­


Do you have to wear a uniform?

He had to leant this poem.

You will have to wait.

Отсутствие необходимос­


I don’t have to do this ex­ercise.

I didn’t have to get up early yester­day

1 won’t have to meet him.



Мость по гра­фику, догово­ренности

The train is to arrive in five minutes.

He was to do it.

The director was to sign the contract.

They are to arrive tomor­



Настоятель­ный совет, рекоменда­ция (следует)

You should/ ought to lis­ten carefully.

You should/ ought to visit the doctor.

Упрек (следо­вало бы сде­лать, но не сделал)

You should have read this text.


Отсутствие необходимос­


You needn’t do this exer­cise.

You needn’t have done this exercise.

You needn t come here to­morrow.

Test 1. Rephrase the following situations using an appropriate modal verb.

1. I advise you to stop eating chocolate. You stop eating


2. I insist that you do your homework. You do your


3. Will you let me speak to David, please? I speak to David, please?

4. She can hear you well enough. You shout.

5. Talking is not permitted during the test. You talk during

The test.

6. It isn’t right to speak to your mother like that. You speak to your mother like that.

7. It isn’t possible for him to come to the party. He come

To the party.

8. He is obliged to go to the police station once a week. He to go to the police station once a week.

9. It’s forbidden to feed the animals in the Zoo. You feed

The animals in the Zoo.

10. It isn’t necessary to dust the furniture. You dust the


11. Would you mind if I read your book? I read your book?

12. Perhaps they’ll come with us. They come with us.

13. Would you mind if I use your glasses? I use your glasses?

14. Let’s try doing this exercise. we try doing this exercise?

15. He can do it himself. Why he ask anybody for help?

16. Perhaps, she will phone them today. She phone them today.

17. Why don’t you go to the sea for a holiday? You go to

The sea for a holiday.

18. Would you like me to help you with the dishes? I help you with the dishes?

19. It isn’t right to argue with your parents. You argue

With your parents.

20. Perhaps, she is asleep now. She be asleep now.

Test 2. Choose the correct modal verb.

1. Mike play the piano very well. And what about you?

A) can b) should c) must

2. I skate when I was little.

A) can’t b) couldn’t c) mustn’t

3. We hurry. We’ve got plenty of time.

A) can’t b) needn’t c) must

4.you help me with this task?

A) Could b) Must c) May

5. I’m sorry I’m late. I come in?

A) Must b) Should c) May

6. you speak any foreign languages?

A) Can b) Should c) May

7. It’s raining. You take an umbrella.

A) can’t b) don’t have to c) should

8. Γm afraid I come to the party on Friday.

A) can b) can’t c) may

9. You go there at once. It’s really very urgent.

A) don’t have to b) needn’t c) must

10. When I was young, I run for miles.

A) could b) must c) should

11. ‘I smoke here?»No, you mustn’t.’

A) Must b) May c) Should

12. ‘I translate this sentence?»No, you needn’t.’

A) Can b) May c) Must

13. I looked everywhere for the book but I find it.

A) couldn’t b) mustn’t c) shouldn’t

14. You drive carefully on a busy road.

A) can b) may c) should

15. There’s nothing I do about it.

A) can b) may c) don’t have to

16. Schools teach children the difference between right

And wrong.

A) can’t b) mustn’t c) must

17. I don’t feel well today. I leave a bit earlier?

A) Should b) May c) Must

18. That be true! It’s absolutely impossible.

A) can’t b) must c) needn’t

19. Yesterday I stayed at home because I help my father.

A) must b) had to c) can

20. You use my dictionary as long as you like.

A) must b) have to c) may

Test 3. Write should or the correct form of have to in the gaps.

1. Nurses know how to give people injections.

2. You eat more fruit and vegetables.

3. you travel abroad in your job?

4. Tom is ill, he see his doctor.

5. Tm sorry I couldn’t come to your party. I work late.

6. You try to phone your father this weekend.

7. I hope you don’t go home early.

8. Mike is a teacher. He teach different kinds of students.

9. I think Patrick be more polite to his sister!

10. Do I wash up again?

11. A postman get up early every day.

12. I didn’t like the job because I wear a uniform.

13. He ignores me. What I do?

14. I am free on Saturday because I work at the weekend.

15. You look tired. You go to bed now.

16. I think the government do more to help homeless


17. He wear a suit to work but he usually does.

18. Last night Don suddenly became ill. We call a doctor.

19. Caroline may go away next week.

20. You read this book. It’s really excellent.

Test 4. Choose the correct modal verb.

1. I don’t want anyone to know it. You (mustn’t∕don’t have to) tell anyone.

2. Listen! I (сап/must) hear someone crying.

3. When we were at school, we (had to∕ought to) wear a uniform.

4. You (don’t have to∕mustn’t) wear your seatbelt during the whole of the flight.

5. You (should∕have to) tell her that you are sorry.

6. You (need∕must) be a member of the library before you can borrow books.

7. I (needn’t∕shouldn’t) wear glasses because my eyesight is still quite good.

8. When I first came to Madrid, I (could∕couldn’t) say only a few words in Spanish.

9. Helen (must∕had to) leave the meeting early because she had a train to catch.

10. I (didn’t need to∕couldn’t) get tickets after all — they were sold out.

11. I left my bike outside the house last night and this morning it isn’t there any more. Somebody (can’t∕must) have stolen it.

12. ‘I can’t find my umbrella.»You (should∕might) have left it in the restaurant last night.’

13. (Must/May) I see your passport, please?

14. He’s not working tomorrow, so he (doesn’t have to/ should) get up early.

15. Ann was in a very difficult situation. It (must∕can’t) have been easy for her.

16. That shirt is dirty. You (ought to∕needn’t) wash it.

17. Last year I got a lot of money, so we (had to∕were able to) buy a new house.

18. I had forgotten to bring my camera, so I (couldn’t/ shouldn’t) take any pictures.

19. Don’t tell anybody what I said. You (must/сап) keep it secret.

20. Γm really hungry. I (could∕might) eat a horse!

Test 5. Complete this text using the verbs below.

Should (4) can (3) ought (1) Iiave(I) nced(l)

How to Be a Friend of the Earth There are many simple things we (1) all do to stop the destruction of the environment. First of all, we(2) not dump our rubbish without thinking which things, such as bottles and paper, (3) be recycled. We (4) put objects that we(5) recycle in recycling bins. Secondly, instead of taking our car wherever we go, we(6) to leave it at home whenever possible, and go on foot or by public transport. If there is something wrong with our car’s exhaust pipe, we(7) get it fixed immediately. When we(8) to drive to the supermarket to do our shopping, we(9) always remember to take our own bag, so that we don’t(10) to use the supermarket’s plastic bags.

Test 6. Translate the sentences using modal verbs.

1. Он, наверное, учит это стихотворение уже час.

2. Тебе следовало бы давно забыть об этом.

3. Автобус должен был прийти пять минут назад.

4. Не может быть, чтобы он был занят сейчас.

5. Возможно, он сможет помочь тебе.

6. Вам не надо приходить завтра.

7. Должно быть, ему пришлось сделать это.

8. Не могли бы Вы повторить свой вопрос?

9. Может быть, мне придется работать в воскресенье.

10. Вероятно, он еще делает уроки.

11. Тебе следует закончить эту работу.

12. Через год я смогу говорить по-английски очень хорошо.

13. Что тебе пришлось делать вчера?

14. Можно мне выйти?

15. Он должен был прийти час назад.

16. Неужели он забыл про мой день рождения?

17. Учитель сказал, что мы можем идти домой.

18. Ты не должен читать эту книгу.

19. В прошлом году я не умел плавать, а теперь могу.

20. Возможно, он все еще ждет меня.

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